Impacts of Aluminium, Molybdenum, Vanadium, Zirconium, Tungsten and Gallium on the Growth and Enzyme Production of Ascomycetous and Basidiomycetous Fungi

  • Beata Kluczek-Turpeinen University of Helsinki, Dept. of Food and Environmental Sciences
  • Jenny Holm University of Helsinki, Dept. of Food and Environmental Sciences
  • Annele Hatakka University of Helsinki, Dept. of Food and Environmental Sciences
  • Mika A. Kähkönen University of Helsinki, Dept. of Food and Environmental Sciences/Microbiology and Biotechnology Division
Keywords: ascomycetous fungi, basidiomycetous fungi, laccase metal contamination


Metals may influence fungi, which have a key role in global carbon recycling and are promising organisms for bioremediation. The oxidative non-specific enzyme laccase is essential in the fungal degradation of polluting compounds and therefore the impact of these metals on laccase should be known. To assess impacts of Al, Mo, V, Zr, W or Ga, the growth and production of oxidative enzymes of three basidiomycetous and two ascomycetous fungi were tested on indicator color plates. The plates contained ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and alternatively Al (20-100 mg kg-1), Ga (10-50 mg kg-1), Mo (10-50 mg kg-1), Zr (10-50 mg kg-1), W (10-50 mg kg-1), or V (5-20 mg kg-1). All tested basidiomycetes Phlebia radiata, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Physisporinus rivulosus, produced oxidative enzymes with Al, W, Ga, Zr, Mo and V and without added metals. Ascomycetes, an Alternaria sp. and a Fusarium sp., did not produce oxidative enzymes. The growth of P. radiata, P. pulmonarius and P. rivulosus was sensitive to Al, Mo and W and tolerant to Zr. The growth of P. radiata was sensitive to Ga. The growth of P. rivulosus was sensitive to V. The growth of P. pulmonarius was tolerant to V, Ga and Zr. The growth of both the ascomycetes Alternaria sp. and Fusarium sp. was sensitive to all six metals (Al, Mo, V, Zr, W, Ga). The basidiomycetous fungi were more tolerant than ascomycetous fungi to all tested metals, indicating that they are more suitable for bioremediation of harmful organic xenobiotics than the ascomycetous fungi in metal-contaminated soil.

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